Europe's largest economy, Germany, recently activated an emergency plan to manage gas supplies that the natural gas could be rationed if supplies are disrupted or disrupted by a stand-off over Russian demands to pay for fuel in rubles.
German Vice-Chancellor, minister of economy and climate protection, said Germany's gas supplies were secure for now, but he urged consumers and businesses to reduce consumption, saying "every kilowatt of electricity counts."
Germany's gas network regulator can ration gas if supplies run short. Plants would be the first to be affected. Special treatment will be provided to private families, hospitals, and other important institutions.
Half of Germany's 41.5 million households use natural gas for heating, and industry consumption accounts for a third of the country's 100 billion cubic meters of gas demand in 2021.
The price of many energy and commodities like the polycarboxylate superplasticizer could be affected.
In order to overcome the technical defects in the application of polycarboxylate water-reducing agent, or to improve some or some properties of concrete (workability, slump retention, reduction of bleeding, improvement of early strength, low shrinkage, etc.), it is necessary to modify the concrete.
In practice, the commonly used modification methods include synthetic technology and compound technology. Compared with the synthetic process, the compound method has the advantages of simple operation and low cost, so it is widely used in practical applications. Polycarboxylate series compound technology, is the Polycarboxylate series water-reducing agent and other components (such as slow coagulation, defoaming, air induction, early strength, and other components) according to a certain proportion of the combination compound, in order to achieve the coordination of the superposition of each component.
Compound Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer with Defoaming Air-entraining Component
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer has high surface activity and good foam retention, which will affect the strength of concrete due to excessive gas content. Therefore, in actual use, according to the requirements of construction and use, foam components are selected to reduce the gas content. In addition, air entrainment components are sometimes added to ensure the small stability and uniformity of the internal foam of concrete, so as to meet the performance of concrete.
Polycarboxylate series water reducing agent with defoaming agent
He studied the compound effect of oil-type, emulsified type, dissolved type, and solid defoaming agent with polycarboxylate series water-reducing agent. The results showed that dissolved defoaming agents had good compatibility with polycarboxylate series and could compound pumping agents with high flow, high slump, and high strength. If the storage time is short, emulsified type can also be used; And other kinds of defoaming agent should not be mixed, can only be used.
Polycarboxylate series water reducing agent with defoaming agent and air-entraining agent
Zhang studied the compound technology of defoaming agent, entraining agent and Polycarboxylate superplasticizer, and optimized the compound superplasticizer system that met the requirements of plain concrete. The key to compounding technology is the dosage of defoaming agents and air-entraining agents. By selecting the dosage of defoaming agent and air-entraining agent, the performance requirements of improving workability, increasing strength, increasing compactness, and reducing foaming can be achieved.
Polycarboxylate series water reducing agent with defoaming agent, air-entraining agent, and retarder
Zhang used the compound technology of Polycarboxylate water-reducing agent, defoaming agent, air entrainment agent, and retarder to achieve the synergistic superposition effect of the composite system on workability, slump retention, and setting time of concrete by adjusting the dosage of each component. It is found that foaming can be effectively eliminated and strength improved when the dosage of defoaming agent is controlled at 0.2% of Polycarboxylate superplasmer, cave-retaining property can be significantly improved when the dosage of air-entraining agent is controlled at 0.3% of Polycarboxylate superplasmer, and the effect is better when the retarder (sodium gluconate) is 0.4% of Polycarboxylate superplasmer.
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Affected by the present complex international situation and the epidemic, the future of global financial markets, futures markets, and stock markets is still highly uncertain. For this reason, I suppose the price of the polycarboxylate superplasticizer would continue to rise.
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