The European Commission has submitted to member states a new draft of sanctions against Russia, including an oil embargo. Some member states that rely heavily on Russian energy sought exemptions.
Western media reported that the European Commission draft of the sixth round of sanctions against Russia includes within six to eight months gradually banning oil imports from Russia, but allowing Hungary and Slovakia to extend the transition period for several months; The Russian Savings bank and other large financial institutions on the sanctions list.
The European Union has imported 44 billion euros of fossil fuels from Russia since Russia launched its special military operation against Ukraine in late February, according to Finland's Energy and Clean Air Research Center.
The Institute for European and Global Economics in Brussels estimates that the European Union currently consumes about $450 million worth of Russian oil a day.
Among EU members, landlocked Hungary and Slovakia, which import most of their oil from Russia, cannot quickly find alternative supplies. Slovakia says the transition will take years. Some officials believe Bulgaria and the Czech Republic may also seek to opt out of oil sanctions against Russia.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk tungsten powder are still very uncertain.
With metals, direct comparisons based on strength do not work. Because there is no single, universal scale of power. Four types of strength related to metallurgy will be introduced in this article.
Tensile strength is the ability of a material to resist tension. It takes into account the force required to stretch or pull something apart. Materials with low tensile strength are easier to pull apart than materials with high tensile strength.
Compressive strength is the ability of a material to withstand compression (compression). To test the compressive strength, an external force is applied to the material to track how much the material resists a reduction in size. A widely accepted test for compressive strength is the Mohs hardness test. The test uses a 1-10 or softest and hardest mineral grading scale.
Yield strength is the ability of a material to withstand permanent deformation or bending. This is a way of testing the elastic limit of a given material. This is usually determined by a bending test, in which the ends of a beam or rod are clamped and pressure applied. The aim is to discover how much stress is required to exceed the yield point of the material, or the point at which the material will not return to its original shape after the stress is removed.
Impact strength refers to the ability of a material to withstand impact without cracking or breaking. In other words, it's a way to determine the limit of the energy a material can absorb through impact.
Since the strength of a metal depends on many factors, there is no simple answer to the question "what is the strongest metal?" However, several metals are considered to be the strongest, including:
For example, compare tungsten and titanium
Tungsten is the strongest of all natural metals in terms of tensile strength (142,000 psi). But in terms of impact strength, tungsten is weak -- it's a fragile metal and is known to shatter on impact. Titanium, on the other hand, has a tensile strength of 63,000 psi. But when you calculate the density of titanium and compare it pound to pound, it's better than tungsten. In terms of compressive strength, titanium has a much lower Mohs hardness index.
Knowing which material is the strongest really depends on what you're going to do with it. In some applications, high yield strength is critical, but compressive strength is not a factor.
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