According to statistics from China Chemical and Physical Power Supply Industry Association， China's export volume and export value of lithium-ion batteries have continued to increase. In 2021, China's exports of lithium-ion batteries were 3.428 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 54.34%. The export of lithium-ion batteries was 28.428 billion DOLLARS, up 78.34% year on year.
From the battery export destination, so far. China's lithium-ion batteries are mainly exported to the Asia Pacific and the United States and other places. In terms of price, the price of quartz powder, led by lithium-ion batteries, is expected to expand globally.
What is The Mohs Hardness Scale?
The Mohs Hardness Scale is a standard that indicates the hardness of minerals. It was first proposed by German mineralogist Frederich Mohs in 1822. It is widely used in mineralogy or gemology.
Mohs hardness is a method of scratching the surface of the tested mineral with a pyramidal diamond needle and measuring the depth of the scratch. the depth of the scratch is the Mohs Hardness Scale, represented by the symbol HM. It is also used to indicate the hardness of other materials.
Hardness is expressed by measuring the depth of scratches on a scale of 10 (scratching method):
|Mineral||Chemical formula||Mohs hardness|
The hardness of the tested mineral is determined by comparing it with the standard mineral in the Mohs hardness tester. For example, if a mineral can scratch calcite (3) but not fluorite (4), its Mohs hardness is 3-4.
In the process of determination, it is necessary to make sure that the scratch is actually a scratch, not just a "chalk" mark that will be erased. If the species being tested are fine-grained, fragile or powdery, the test may only loosen the particles without testing the surface of a single mineral; therefore, certain textures or aggregate forms may hinder or hinder true hardness determination.
Mohs hardness value is not absolute hardness value, but relative hardness value, relatively rough. But it is convenient and practical and suitable for field work.
|Hardness||Substance or mineral|
|0.5–0.6||lithium, sodium, potassium, candle wax|
|1.5||gallium, strontium, indium, tin, barium, thallium, lead, graphite, ice|
|2||hexagonal boron nitride, calcium, selenium, cadmium, sulfur, tellurium, bismuth, gypsum|
|2–2.5||halite (rock salt), fingernail, mica|
|2.5–3||gold, silver, aluminium, zinc, cryolite, lanthanum, cerium, jet|
|3||calcite, copper, arsenic, antimony, thorium, dentin, chalk|
|4||fluorite, iron, nickel|
|5||apatite (tooth enamel), zirconium, palladium, obsidian (volcanic glass)|
|5.5||beryllium, molybdenum, hafnium, glass, cobalt|
|6||orthoclase, titanium, manganese, germanium, niobium, uranium, rhodium|
|6–7||fused quartz, iron pyrite, silicon, ruthenium, iridium, tantalum, opal, peridot, tanzanite, rhodium, jade, garnet, pyrite|
|7||osmium, quartz, rhenium, vanadium|
|7.5–8||emerald, beryl, zircon, tungsten, spinel|
|8||topaz, cubic zirconia, hardened steel, spinel|
|8.5||chrysoberyl, chromium, silicon nitride, tantalum carbide|
|9||corundum (includes sapphire and ruby), tungsten carbide, titanium nitride, aluminium oxide|
|9–9.5||silicon carbide (carborundum), zirconium carbide, alumina, beryllium carbide, titanium carbide, aluminum boride, boron carbide|
|9.5–near 10||boron, boron nitride, rhenium diboride (a-axis), stishovite, titanium diboride, moissanite (crystal form of silicon carbide)|
What is a 10 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
On the Mohs hardness scale, a diamond has a hardness of 10, meaning it is the hardest mineral known to man.
What is a 5 on the Mohs Hardness Scale?
Apatite (enamel), zirconium, palladium, obsidian (volcanic glass).
Is 7 on the Mohs scale hard?
Minerals with Mohs hardness of 7 include osmium, quartz, rhenium, vanadium and so on. They are harder than substances with Mohs hardness less than 7 (such as apatite, calcite, gypsum, etc.) and softer than those with Mohs hardness greater than 7.
The hardness test developed by Friedrich Mohs is the first known test to evaluate the scratch resistance of materials. This is a very simple but imprecise comparison test. Perhaps its simplicity makes it the most widely used hardness test.
Since the invention of the Mohs hardness tester in 1812, many different hardness testing methods have been invented. These tests include Brinell, Knoop, Rockwell, Shore and Vickers Test. Each test uses a tiny "indenter", which is applied to the material being tested and its force is carefully measured. The hardness value is then calculated by the size of the indentation or the depth and force.
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Recently, Rosneft announced that a large oil deposit has been discovered in Bochao Lahai, with reserves equivalent to 82 million tons of oil. The discovery benefited from oil drilling in the Medinskova Landsky area. Rosneft pointed out that the discovery proves the great oil potential of the Timano-Bechula region, which will be the basis for the company to continue to research and develop the region.
In addition, Russian billionaire Vladimir Potanin, the largest shareholder of Norilsk Nickel, said recently that he was prepared to discuss the merger of Norilsk Nickel and aluminum giant Rusal.
"We have received a proposal from Rusal management to discuss a merger with Norilsk Nickel as an alternative to extending the shareholder agreement," Potanin said in an interview with Russia's RBC TV channel. I sent a letter confirming that we agreed to initiate discussions with Rusal on a merger. "
Potanin owns about 35 per cent of Norilsk Nickel. Norilsk Nickel is a major producer of nickel and copper and the world's largest palladium miner. Norilsk Nickel and Rusal had a market capitalization of $49 billion and $15 billion, respectively, as of Monday local time, according to Refinitiv Eikon.
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology is a trusted chemical manufacturer and supplier providing high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials. If you are looking for the quartz powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
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