The Biden administration plans to ease sanctions on Venezuelan oil to allow more of the country's crude to reach Europe.
The U.S. will allow European companies still operating in Venezuela to immediately transfer more oil to the continent, while allowing Chevron to negotiate a resumption of operations in Venezuela, according to people familiar with the matter. Venezuela's OPPOSITION, which is backed by the United States, is understood to favor the move. Tight global oil supplies have sent crude and fuel costs soaring, threatening to add to already high inflation. Increasing Venezuelan crude exports would help ease supply constraints while also helping to reduce Europe's dependence on Russian energy.
The US has sought to encourage talks between the Venezuelan government and the US-backed opposition to open the way to free and fair elections by extending a limited license held by Chevron to allow the oil company to maintain its operations in Venezuela and negotiate future operations.
The United States reportedly did not extend a permit to Allow Chevron to drill and sell Venezuelan crude, as the company had hoped.
The license extension will allow Chevron to negotiate with State-run Petroleos de Venezuela SA, with which it has a joint venture. Previously, the company could not directly negotiate with any officials sanctioned by the United States. Chevron has been lobbying the United States to allow it to drill for Venezuelan crude and sell it on world markets to help lower energy prices amid the Russia-Ukraine war.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of many commodities like the gold nanoparticles are still very uncertain.
What is colloidal gold?
Colloidal gold is the sol or colloidal suspension of gold nanoparticles in fluid (usually water). Colloids are usually wine red (for spherical particles less than 100 nm) or blue / purple (for larger spherical particles or nanorods).
Colloidal gold properties
The properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles and their potential applications depend to a large extent on their size and shape. For example, rod-shaped particles have transverse and longitudinal absorption peaks, and the anisotropy of their shape will affect their self-assembly.
What are gold nanoparticles used for?
Drug delivery system
Gold nanoparticles can be used to optimize the biological distribution of drugs to diseased organs, tissues or cells in order to improve and target drug delivery. Only when the drug distribution is insufficient, the drug delivery mediated by nanoparticles is feasible. These cases include targeting unstable drugs (proteins, siRNA, DNA), delivering drugs to difficult sites (brain, retina, tumors, intracellular organelles), and drugs with serious side effects (such as anticancer drugs). The properties of nanoparticles depend on their size and surface function. In addition, drug release and particle disintegration may vary from system to system (for example, biodegradable polymers that are sensitive to pH). The optimal nano-drug delivery system ensures that the active drug is available within the correct time and duration of the action site, and its concentration should be higher than the min. effective concentration (MEC) and lower than the min. toxic concentration (MTC).
Gold nanoparticles are being studied as carriers for drugs such as paclitaxel. The delivery of hydrophobic drugs requires molecular encapsulation, and nanoparticles have been found to be particularly effective in avoiding the reticuloendothelial system.
Radiotherapy dose enhancer
There has been considerable interest in the use of gold and other nanoparticles containing heavy atoms to increase the dose to tumors. Because gold nanoparticles are more absorbed by tumors than nearby healthy tissues, the dose is selectively increased. The biological effect of this treatment seems to be due to the local deposition of radiation doses near the nanoparticles. This mechanism is the same as that occurred in heavy ion therapy.
Detect toxic gases
Based on the anti-aggregation effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the researchers developed a simple and inexpensive method for on-site detection of hydrogen sulfide in air. Dissolving hydrogen sulfide in a weakly alkaline buffer solution forms HS-,HS-, which stabilizes AuNPs and ensures that they remain red, allowing visual observation of hydrogen sulfide toxicity levels.
What are gold nanoparticles made of?
Turkevich et al.1951 developed a method for the synthesis of AuNPs by treating tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) with citric acid in boiling water, in which citric acid not only acts as a reduction but also acts as a stabilizer. Frances further improved this method by changing the ratio of gold to citric acid to control the particle size. This scheme has been widely used to prepare moderately stable spherical AuNPs diluents with a diameter of 10-20 nm, but it can also be used to prepare larger AuNPs (for example, 100 nm).
Why are gold nanoparticles red?
The resonance frequency of gold nanoparticles is in the visible spectrum. Smaller gold nanoparticles absorb and resonate with purple, blue, green and yellow wavelengths, so they look red.
Colloidal gold Price
The price is influenced by many factors including the supply and demand in the market, industry trends, economic activity, market sentiment, and unexpected events.
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New Delhi: India's Oil Ministry recently conveyed its intention to five national oil companies including Indian Oil Corp and Bharat Petroleum Resources LTD to assess the possibility of buying shares in Russian oil projects sold by European and American oil majors.
Bp announced it would give up its 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the Russian oil company. ExxonMobil said on March 1 that it would exit about $4 billion in assets and terminate all of its Russian operations, including the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia's far East.
India's oil ministry has asked the overseas investment arm of India's Oil and Gas Corporation to consider buying ExxonMobil's 30 percent stake in the Sakhalin 1 project in Russia's far East. ExxonMobil is the operator of the project and Indian companies already have a 20 percent stake in the project.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk gold nanoparticles are still very uncertain.
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