U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Indium Selenide.
What is Indium Selenide?
Indium Selenide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula In2Se3. Black crystals or dark black scale-like substances. It is a typical two-dimensional layered semiconductor material.
Single crystal indium selenide can be prepared by the Bridgman–Stockberger method. Using a certain proportion of selenium and indium as raw materials, each compound of indium selenide can be prepared by reacting in a tube furnace at high temperature for a long time.
The research on the hydrothermal synthesis of In2Se3 was relatively late. Ascorbic acid was dissolved in ethanol solution at 60 °C, then InCl3 and Se powder were added, and the reaction kettle was kept at 220 °C for 20 hours. -4 μm flower-like γ-In2Se3 spheres.
What is indium selenide used for
InSe is a bandgap-tunable layered semiconductor material with nonlinear optical response over a wide wavelength range. The researchers obtained InSe nanosheets with suitable thickness and band gap by a liquid-phase exfoliation method, and systematically investigated their nonlinear optics and ultrafast carrier dynamics at different pulse width scales (ns and fs).
The researchers found that InSe nanosheets are more likely to reach saturable absorption under wide-pulse laser excitation. Furthermore, the InSe dispersions exhibit different mechanisms of scattering phenomena at different pulse durations, which are due to the thermal effect under ns-pulse excitation and the dynamic spatial self-phase modulation of the laser flow under fs-pulse excitation.
At the same time, the optical switch modulation is realized by utilizing the competitive relationship between saturable absorption at low energy and nonlinear scattering at high energy. The time-resolved pump-probe results indicate that the InSe dispersion has an ultrafast saturable absorption process and a photoinduced absorption process that may be caused by free carrier absorption or bandgap renormalization.
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Commodities such as crude oil, wheat, cotton, and nickel have rallied since Russia's "special military operations" began in late February. On the last trading day of this quarter, commodities were on track for their biggest gain since 1990. For this reason, it is expected that the price of the Indium Selenide will continue to increase.
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