The biggest immediate challenge for the EU will be replenishing its depleted gas inventories. While the EU could still increase LNG imports from countries such as the US, such purchases would be more expensive.
Refilling natural gas storage space to historical average levels this year could cost 70 billion euros, a sevenfold increase, compared to 10 billion euros in previous years. "
A complete replacement for Russian gas is not only very expensive, but it also may not be possible.
In the next 12 months, there is little way to meet the demand for a "normal" year in the absence of Gazprom, which also includes Inconel 718.
What is a superalloy - Inconel 718
Superalloys or high performance alloys are non-ferrous alloys that exhibit excellent strength and surface stability at high temperatures. Their ability to operate safely at higher melting points (up to 85% of the melting point (T m ) in degrees Kelvin, 0.85) is their key feature. Superalloys are typically used at temperatures above 540 °C (1000 °F), as normal steel and titanium alloys lose their strength at these temperatures and steel corrodes at these temperatures.
At elevated temperatures, superalloys maintain mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation. Some nickel-based superalloys can withstand temperatures in excess of 1200°C, depending on the alloy's composition. Superalloys are usually cast in single crystal form, and while grain boundaries provide strength, they reduce creep resistance.
Properties of Inconel 718 Alloy
Physical properties of Inconel718/alloy718: density ρ=8.24g/cm3, melting temperature range 1260～1320℃, processing and heat treatment: it is a difficult-to-process material in the field of machining.
Inconel718/alloy718 cold and hot working: the suitable hot working temperature of the alloy is 1120-900 ℃, and the cooling method can be water quenching or other rapid cooling methods. After hot working, it should be annealed in time to ensure good performance. During hot processing, the material should be heated to the upper limit of the processing temperature. In order to ensure the plasticity during processing, the final processing temperature when the deformation amount reaches 20% should not be lower than 960 °C. Cold working should be carried out after solution treatment, and the work hardening rate is greater than that of austenitic stainless steel, so the processing equipment should be adjusted accordingly, and there should be an intermediate annealing process during the cold working process.
Inconel718/alloy718 is suitable for arc welding, plasma welding, etc. Before welding, the surface of the material should be clean, free of oil stains, no chalk marks, etc., and the bright metal should be polished within 25mm around the weld.
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